Thailand: Military-Backed Government Censors Internet

Blocking Cyber Dissidents Obstructs Return to Democracy 

(New York, May 24, 2007) -- Thailand's military-backed government is
undermining free political debate and delaying the return to democracy by
barring access to many political websites, Human Rights Watch said today.

Since the current government came to power after a September 2006 coup
against Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra, Thai authorities have been
active in silencing cyber critics and dissidents. This is in stark
contradiction to Prime Minister Surayud Chulanont's pledges to create an
atmosphere conducive to democratization and political reform.

"A major complaint about Thaksin was his muzzling of the media and
willingness to limit free speech," said Brad Adams, Asia director at Human
Rights Watch. "The military-backed government promised a quick return to
democracy, but it's now attacking freedom of expression and political
pluralism in ways that Thaksin never dared."

Censorship of the internet is now being carried out by the Ministry of
Information and Communications Technology (MICT) and the Royal Thai
Police, in collaboration with the Communications Authority of Thailand
(CAT) and the Telecommunication Authority (TOT), which provide Thailand's
international internet gateways. Since the coup, the MICT has employed
around-the-clock "watchers" to monitor content on the internet to find
information considered to be offending the monarchy (a criminal offense in
Thailand punishable by up to 15 years imprisonment), threatening national
security, disrupting public order, or being obscene.

Based on this continuous surveillance, officials from the MICT and the
Royal Thai Police have distributed names of websites, both domestic and
foreign, to government and private internet service providers (ISPs),
telling the ISPs to block access to blacklisted websites.

Many of the blocked websites were established in opposition to the
September 19, 2006 coup and the subsequent role of the military in Thai
politics. Websites blocked include the September 19 Network (
and and websites known to be supportive of Thaksin and his
Thai Rak Thai party, such as the online telecast of PTV television
(, the online broadcast of Saturday Voice
( and and the online
broadcast of FM 87.75 Taxi Community Radio ( Hosts
of popular political blogs used among cyber critics and dissidents, such
as BlogSpot (, have also been blocked by some ISPs.

Internet users attempting to access blocked websites encounter either an
"Access Denied" message, are redirected to the MICT website, or receive a
notice with the MICT's logo saying that access to such websites has been
blocked due to "inappropriate content" (

The MICT has also blocked anonymous proxy servers through which Thai
internet users can access a blocked webpage. The ministry has requested
Google Thailand ( and to block access to its
cached web pages in Thailand by which blocked pages can be accessed, as
well as to block by keyword search.

In addition, Thai authorities are monitoring critical opinions and debates
on popular opinion boards of Prachathai ( and
Pabtip.Com ( They have issued warnings to both websites
that they, too, would be shut down if they failed to remove opinions
critical of the military junta.

"The military and government are clearly worried that Thaksin may return
to power and are engaging in censorship to stop this," said Adams. "But
instead of resorting to draconian restrictions on free speech, the Thai
authorities need to realize that their promised return to democracy
requires opening the political process."

The coup leaders, now known as the Council for National Security (CNS),
made their intentions to control the internet known soon after the coup by
issuing Order Number 5/2549, which authorized the MICT to shut down
internet sites for posting inaccurate content and material deemed to be
harming government reform efforts.

On September 29, 2006, access to a leading non-formal education center,
the Midnight University website ( – which
recorded more than half a million visitors per month from all over the
world, thousands of articles and discussion boards – was temporarily
blocked after its staff held a protest against the coup. Access to the
Midnight University website was possible again only after its staff
obtained a temporary restraining order from the Administrative Court
ordering the MICT to unblock their website.

On November 15, 2006, the government introduced a draft law to criminalize
the generation, possession, storage, dissemination of and access to
prohibited information on the internet. The Bill on Computer-Related
Offenses passed its first reading on the same date. On May 9, 2007, the
legislation was quickly passed in the second and third readings by an
overwhelming 119-1 vote by members of the National Legislative Assembly.
The law provides broad powers to officials appointed by the MICT minister
to intercept and seize computer data, and seek court warrants to block the
dissemination of information on the internet if such information is
considered as a threat to national security according to the Penal Code.
The law carries harsh penalties for those found guilty of offenses,
including a penalty of up to five years of imprisonment and/or a fine of
up to 100,000 baht (US$2,700). Lawyers, internet and media professionals,
and bloggers fear that in a tense political environment, these provisions
could easily be misused by the authorities against political opponents and
critics of military rule.

Human Rights Watch said that freedom of expression and pluralism,
including tolerance of dissenting views, is vital if Thailand wants to be
a rights-respecting democracy. Active exchanges of peaceful ideas and
opinions should be encouraged, not punished.

"Freedom of expression, including offering opinions on the internet, is an
essential basis of any functioning democracy," Adams said. "Blocking
critical websites resembles the behavior of China and Vietnam. Is this the
company that Thailand's leaders want to keep?"

Human Rights Watch Press release

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